The author writes the text. If there is a collaborative work, there may be several authors. The author gives or not the rights for use of his work to a publishing house which is in charge of the broadcast, depending on the jurisdiction. At the writing level, it must be distinguished between the essays of creative works on one hand, and works ordered by publishers on the other hand. The essays address technical and scientific fields or current events.
The publisher, on behalf of his publishing house, took most of the financial risk of publishing (layout and model, if necessary, translation, printing and distribution) and profit sharing between the author, distributor and bookseller.